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Monday, November 5, 2012

Prepress


Pre-Press

Classroom Video

PART A: Video Research

1. List the printing process identified in this program.
Web-feed printers that print on large rolls of paper.
Sheet-feed printers.

2. What products are printed using the cheaper papers in printing?
The cheapest papers are uncoated papers like newsprint which have a short lifespan in use.

3. What products are higher quality papers used for in printing?
More expensive papers may be coated to give them greater durability and with these heavier papers they may be used for colourful advertising brochures or for books.
Photographic books.
Art prints.

4. What are printing plates made from in the offset lithographic print process?
A very thin metal often aluminium.

5. What are spot colours used for?
To create a very intense colour like gold or silver or to add a shiny varnish highlight to a page.

6. How is digital printing different from offset lithography?
Variable data where you can have a different image come of the page at each turn.
Speed is limited to be slower than that off the printing press.
The maximum thickness of paper that can go through the machines is limited to 200gsm.

7. What are the advantages of flexography printing?
Fixed data printing which is used in many different materials such as paper, plastics and corrugated cardboard.
Printing plates are made of flexible material called photopolymer.
Flexography prints using a raised image on the printing plate which is known as relief printing.
Three main types of flexographic printing machines include the central impression, the stack press and the in line press.

8. What methods are used to dry inks?
The drying rate can be adjusted by use of faster or slow drying solvents like acetates and Propanols.

9. How is digital printing different from traditional printing?
Two main methods in digital printing include electrophotography and ink jet printing.
Digital printing can be faster which could save money and time.

10. What is a substrate?
The material onto which the print ink is ultimately applied, such as paper, plastic, film, cardboard, canvas or cloth.

11. Why is coloured artwork separated into four plates?
For colour registration and ink density.
Colours not to mix in with each other.

12. Book casing refers to what?
The process of the book being bound into either a hard case, soft case, sewn book or stitch book.
Hardcover book with printed jackets on the outside of the book.

13.Binding and finishing uses different equipment to finish the printed work.  

Explain these terms:

a. Knife folding machine – also called the right angle fold principle where it lays the paper onto a flat surface, then a knife pushes the paper through a slit in the surface of the flat plate onto two rollers in the positions below. These rollers engage the paper and form the fold.

b. Perfect binding machine – includes the use of stapling, spiral- coil binding, perfect binding-glue, heavy cover and thread-stitching with pages sewn onto fabric.

c. Guillotine – cuts flat sheets of printed paper.


PART B: After the Program


Research and compare two printing processes outlined in the program to produce a magazine and comment on their suitability or otherwise.  Document your findings and answer these questions in sentence format.

Web-Fed Printing

Web-fed refers to the use of rolls (or "webs") of paper supplied to the printing press. Offset web printing is generally used for runs in excess of five or ten thousand impressions. Typical examples of web printing include newspapers, newspaper inserts/ads, magazines, catalogues, and books. Web-fed presses are divided into two general classes: "cold" or "non-heatset," and "heatset" offset web presses; the difference being how the inks that are used dry. Cold web offset printing dries through absorption into the paper, while heatset utilizes drying lamps or heaters to cure or "set" the inks. Heatset presses can print on both coated (slick) and uncoated papers, while coldset presses are restricted to uncoated paper stock, such as newsprint. Some coldset web presses can be fitted with heat dryers, or ultraviolet lamps (for use with UV-curing inks). It is also possible to add a drier to a cold-set press. This can enable a newspaper press to print colour pages heatset and black and white pages coldset.

Web offset presses are beneficial in long run printing jobs, typically press runs that exceed ten or twenty thousand impressions. Speed is a determining factor when considering the completion time for press production; some web presses print at speeds of 3,000 feet per minute or faster. In addition to the benefits of speed and quick completion, some web presses have the inline ability to cut, perforate, and fold.

Heatset web offset: This subset of web offset printing uses inks which dry by evaporation in a dryer typically positioned just after the printing units. This is typically done on coated papers, where the ink stays largely on the surface, and gives a glossy high contrast print image after the drying. As the paper leaves the dryer too hot for the folding and cutting that are typically downstream procedures, a set of "chill rolls" positioned after the dryer lowers the paper temperature and sets the ink. The speed at which the ink dries is a function of dryer temperature and length of time the paper is exposed to this temperature. This type of printing is typically used for magazines, catalogues, inserts and other medium-to-high volume, medium-to-high quality production runs.

Coldset web offset: This is also a subset of web offset printing, typically used for lower quality print output. It is typical of newspaper production. In this process, the ink dries by absorption into the underlying paper. A typical coldset configuration is often a series of vertically arranged print units and peripherals. As newspapers seek new markets, which often imply higher quality (more gloss, more contrast), they may add a heatset tower (with a dryer) or use UV (ultraviolet) based inks which "cure" on the surface by polymerisation rather than by evaporation or absorption.

Sheet-Fed Printing

Sheet-fed refers to individual sheets of paper or paperboard being fed into a press via a suction bar that lifts and drops each sheet onto place. A lithographic ("litho" for short) press uses principles of lithography to apply ink to a printing plate, as explained previously. Sheet-fed litho is commonly used for printing of short-run magazines, brochures, letter headings, and general commercial (jobbing) printing. In sheet-fed offset, “the printing is carried out on single sheets of paper as they are fed to the press one at a time.” Sheet-fed presses use mechanical registration to relate each sheet to one another to ensure that they are reproduced with the same imagery in the same position on every sheet running through the press.
Following my analysis of what would be suitable to produce a magazine I would suggest the Web feed printing process as it would be much faster and more efficient.

PART C: After the Program

Create a puzzle word-search using these printing terms.

Plates
Direct marketing
Squeegee
Ink
Blanket
Web-press
Impressions
Sheet-fed
Folder
Substrate
Ink jet
Screen
Grippers
Electrophotography
Stencil

PUZZLE WORD SEARCH
WORD SEARCH

PART D: After the Program

Collect examples of six different printed materials and attach a description to each item that explains the main features of the printing process used. Set them out in easy steps or diagrams / pictures and clearly show how the processes relate to your examples.

NEW YORK MICHAEL THE EMPIRE STATE NUMBER PLATE
NAME PLATE

Method No. 1

There are two main methods for making license plates. The first has been used since the beginnings of the license plate. This process involves inserting blank metal sheets into a special license plate press. When the press is closed, the appropriate writing is stamped into the metal plate. The plate is removed and painted with a single background colour. A roller then passes over the top of the plate at just the right height to only colour the raised lettering. The entire plate is then treated with a highly reflective coding to finish it off.

Method No. 2

The second method for making license plates is becoming increasingly more popular and involves much newer technology. During this process, a pre-printed sheet with all of the necessary colours and writing is placed into the press. This pre-printed sheet is also already coated in the reflective coating. The press then raises the lettering to look the same as the plates produced by the first method. Then a different type of ink is rolled over the raised lettering. This gives the new plates a better reflective capability than the old method and allows law enforcement to better see and read the plates. This method creates better plates, but it is also more expensive to manufacture. These prices are passed along to the driver when he needs to license his vehicle or buy new plates.


BASEBALL SHIRT
This T-shirt  would have gone through the Screen Print process
FLORIDA MAP MOUSE PAD
Mouse pads can be printed by inkjet printers
MY AUSTRALIA TREES
Flexographic printing may have been used for this picture
ANTARCTIC FLIGHTS
QANTAS ADVENTURES

I AM THE LORD
Printed on recycled paper with soy-based inks including minimum of 10% post-consumer fiber.

PART E: Terminology



Analog proof - An analog proof requires that film negatives or positives be made in order to produce the colour proof. Analog proofs can be categorized as either an "analog position proof" or an "analog contract proof".


An analog position proof provides an overall concept of the colour scheme for the project, as well as the design format. Because the colours that are used to make the proof do not coincide with the colours utilized with the printing device, it is never used as a guide to match the colour with the final printed piece.


The analog contract proof is used as the final version approved by the customer, in which the colours of the final proof are expected to match. The analog process utilizes film negative colour separations of the primary subtractive colour components of the image (cyan, magenta, and yellow) and black. The separations in turn are used to create separate layers containing coloured toners (colour key) that match closely with the primary ink colours used when printing the project. The individual layers are sandwiched together to produce the full colour effect. The separation negatives are also used to create the printing plates.


Additive Colour - Additive colour describes the situation where colour is created by mixing the visible light emitted from differently coloured light sources. This is in contrast to subtractive colours where light is removed from various part of the visible spectrum to create colours. 

Artwork may refer to:


A work of art in the visual arts.

A piece of conceptual art.

In publishing, printing and advertising, any visual as opposed to textual material, usually in the context of preparing for printing, including: 


  • Cover art, the illustration or photograph on the outside of a published product such as a book, magazine, comic book, product package, video game, DVD, CD, videotape, or esp. album art.
  • Illustration the original imagery that was used as a basis for illustration.
Artwork (graphic arts) a drawing used in various processes to transfer an image onto a substrate.

Photomask, an opaque plate with holes or transparencies that allow light to shine through in a defined pattern, commonly used in photolithography.

ArtWorks, a Cincinnati organization.
Ascender - In typography, an ascender is the portion of a minuscule letter in a Latin-derived alphabet that extends above the mean line of a font. That is, the part of a lower-case letter that is taller than the font's x-height.

Ascenders, together with descenders, increase the recognisability of words. For this reason, British road signs no longer use all capital letters.
 

Backing - Shaping the spine of a book block to form a shoulder on its front and back.

Base art - The copy that is laid out on the art board opposed to the overlays. It is generally the colour that will print in black or the colour to be used on the majority of the copy.
Beating - Blender type machine used to pulverize pulp and for mixing additives and colour to the stock.

Bleaching - Chemical treatment to brighten, whiten, purify, refine, and balance pulp fibre.
 
Bleed - (1) In printing, printed image that runs off the edges of a page. (2) The migration of ink into unwanted areas.

Body matter - The structure of a work (and especially of its body matter) is often described hierarchically.

Volumes 

A volume is a set of leaves that are bound together. Thus each work is either a volume, or is divided into volumes.

Books and parts 

(Single-volume works account for most of the non-academic consumer market in books.) A single volume may embody either a part of a book or the whole of a book; in some works, parts include multiple books, and in some others books include multiple parts.

Chapters and sections 

A chapter or section may be contained within a part and/or a book; when both chapters and sections are used in the same work, the sections are more often contained within chapters than the reverse.
Body size - The size of type is usually measured in points, a unit of length in use since 1735, with various values. In the United States it was formerly 0.013837 inch (72 points = 0.996″), but with the rise of digital typesetting the value 0.013888…, that is 72 points = 1 inch, has become more usual. Twelve points = 1 pica; 6 pica = 1″.
Bromide
Bulk

Calendering - To impart a smooth finish on paper by passing the web of paper between polished metal rolls to increase gloss and smoothness.
Camera-ready copy - Camera-ready copy is the final layout of a page, looking exactly as it should appear when it is published.

CMYK colour - The CMYK colour model (process colour, four colour) is a subtractive colour, used in colour, and is also used to describe the printing process itself. CMYK refers to the four inks used in some colour printing: cyan, magenta, yellow, and key (black). Though it varies by print house, press operator, press manufacturer, and press run, ink is typically applied in the order of the abbreviation.

The "K" in CMYK stands for key since in four-color printing cyan, magenta, and yellow printing plates are carefully keyed or aligned with the key of the black key plate. Some sources suggest that the "K" in CMYK comes from the last letter in "black" and was chosen because B already means blue. However, this explanation, although useful as a mnemonic, is incorrect. 
The CMYK model works by partially or entirely masking colours on a lighter, usually white, background. The ink reduces the light that would otherwise be reflected. Such a model is called subtractive because inks "subtract" brightness from white.

In additive colour models such as RGB, white is the "additive" combination of all primary coloured lights, while black is the absence of light. In the CMYK model, it is the opposite: white is the natural colour of the paper or other background, while black results from a full combination of coloured inks. To save money on ink, and to produce deeper black tones, unsaturated and dark colours are produced by using black ink instead of the combination of cyan, magenta and yellow.
Coated paper - Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in the four major categories cast, gloss, dull and matte.
Collate - To organize printed matter in a specific order as requested.

Colour bar - Printed bars of ink colours used to monitor a print image. These bars show the amount of ink to be applied by the press, the registration, and the densities across the press sheet.
Compositor - One that sets written material into type; a typesetter.

Continuous tone - Tonal gradation without use of halftone dots.
Crop marks - Specifically placed marks attached to artwork that show the area to be printed.
Cyan - One of the four process colours. Also known as process blue. 
Densitometer - Reflection instrument measuring the density of coloured ink to determine its consistency throughout a press run.
Descender - The parts of lower case letters that extend below the baseline.
Desktop publishing - Technique of using a personal computer to design images and pages, and assemble type and graphics, then using a laser printer or image setter to output the assembled pages onto paper, film or printing plate. Abbreviated DTP.
Digesting - Wood chips are cooked to separate fibres from each other and to remove detrimental particles.
Digital proof - A digital proof is a colour prepress proofing method where a job is printed from the digital file using inkjet, colour laser, dye sublimation, or thermal wax print technologies to give a good approximation of what the final printed piece will look like. The digital proof is generally less expensive than other prepress proofs. Digital proofs can often be produced on the actual paper stock of the job adding another element Of accuracy. Digital proofing also includes a type of almost WYSIWYG (What You See IS What You Get) on-screen proofing or soft proofing generally only used in the early stages of production (e.g. a PDF).   Digital proofs come in continuous tone and halftone proofs and with the recent advances in the technology, are sometimes used as contract prints.

Digital electronic printing - Digital printing refers to methods of printing from a digital based image directly to a variety of media. The main differences between digital printing and traditional methods such as lithography, flexography, gravure, or letterpress are that no need to replace printing plates in digital whereas in analog printing plates are continuously replaced, resulting in a quicker and less expensive turnaround time, and typically a loss of some fine-image detail by most commercial digital printing processes. The most popular methods include inkjet or laser printers that deposit pigment or toner onto a wide variety of substrates including paper, photo paper, canvas, glass, metal, marble and other substances.
In many of the processes the ink or toner does not permeate the substrate, as does conventional ink, but forms a thin layer on the surface that may be additionally adhered to the substrate by using a fuser fluid with heat process (toner) or UV curing process (ink). 

Doctor Blade - Generic term for any steel, rubber, plastic, or other type of blade used to apply or remove a liquid substance from another surface, such as those blades used in coating paper. The term "doctor blade" is believed to be derived from the name of a blade used in conjunction with ductor rolls on letterpress presses. The term "ductor blade" eventually mutated into the term "doctor blade." 

In gravure printing, the doctor blade is a steel strip used to remove ink from the outside surface of the gravure cylinder. Although steel is preferred in most gravure applications, plastics are occasionally used, usually in conjunction with a worn cylinder as a means of prolonging its life. Steel doctor blades vary in thickness from 0.004 inch to 0.015 inch, and are manufactured with strict tolerances. (Plastic blades can be as thick as 0.060 inch.) The most important consideration in the manufacture of a doctor blade is straightness, so as to ensure consistent scraping pressure across the width of the gravure cylinder. 

The doctor blade is fixed firmly in place by a doctor blade assembly, the amount of blade protruding from the holder being known as the blade extension—generally recommended to be K: H inch. It is set at certain optimum angles to ensure minimal blade and/or cylinder wear. The angle at which the blade contacts the cylinder (called the contact angle) is generally 55:65º, with 60º being most manufacturers' specified contact angle. The angle can be varied to correct various cylinder defects and/or inking problems. The contact angle also affects the distance between the blade and the nip between the gravure cylinder and the impression roller. This distance needs to be small enough to prevent drying-in, the undesirable drying of ink in the gravure cylinder cells. Many doctor blades oscillate across the width of the cylinder as a means of preventing cylinder wear and to remove solid bits of debris that can collect on the surface of the cylinder of the rear of the blade itself. The force or pressure with which the blade contacts the cylinder should be as minimal as possible, or should wipe the cylinder effectively but not contribute to blade and/or cylinder wear. (The process of setting the contact angle and blade contact pressure is known as running in or toning in.) A related consideration is the unavoidable deflection of the blade during the print run, or, in other words, a slight curvature of the blade caused by the rotating cylinder. The contact angle and blade pressure should take into account deflection. The edge of the blade itself comes in a variety of configurations, either pre-honed by the manufacturer or honed in-house by the printer. Regardless of the configuration, the important considerations are effective wiping and the minimization of wear. Surface roughness of the cylinder is important for doctor blade lubrication (which refers to the ease or reduced-friction movement of one solid surface over another). Gravure cylinders that are too smooth will increase doctor blade wear and cylinder damage. On some packaging presses, scavenger marks are deliberately etched into non-image areas corresponding to non-printing regions of the substrate (and which can be removed during finishing operations, such as trimming) to facilitate the removal of particles of ink or other debris from beneath the doctor blade. 
Blade wear can have three different causes: abrasion (commonly produced by foreign particles or the use of abrasive ink pigments), fatigue (caused by stress), and corrosion (the result of chemical reaction, such as oxidation—or rusting—or overly acidic or alkaline ink vehicles). Most inks manufactured for gravure printing are produced with proper resin and solvent concentrations so as to minimize abrasion and facilitate lubrication. 

Some gravure presses include a pre-wiping blade located between the ink fountain and the doctor blade which is set close to the cylinder, but which does not contact it, its purpose being to slough off excess ink before the doctor blade removes the remaining thin ink film. 
Damaged doctor blades can produce a variety of printing defects, such as railroading and railroad tracks, or continuous streaks, marks, or lines appearing on the substrate, caused by incomplete wiping of the cylinder. Such problems are commonly caused either by nicks in the doctor blade, or by dried particles of ink or other materials stuck to the rear or back of the doctor blade. (See also Inking System: Gravure and Gravure.) 

A doctor blade is also used in several flexographic inking systems. Similar in construction and function as doctor blades used in gravure, doctor blades used in flexographic presses scrape excess ink from the surface of the anilox roller that applies ink to the printing plate. Doctor blades tend to be more effective for ink metering than more traditional fountain roller arrangements. See Inking System: Flexography and Anilox Roller. 

A doctor blade used in screen printing is called a flood bar. See Flood Bar. 
Dot gain - Phenomenon of halftone dots printing larger on paper than they are on films or plates, reducing detail and lowering contrast. Also called dot growth, dot spread and press gain.

Dots per inch - Measure of resolution of input devices such as scanners, display devices such as monitors, and output devices such as laser printers, image setters and monitors. Abbreviated DPI. Also called dot pitch.

Dummy - Simulation of the final product. Also called mock-up.

Duotone - Black-and-white photograph reproduced using two halftone negatives, each shot to emphasize different tonal values in the original.

Dye-line - a contact print of a line drawing, giving brown lines on an off-white background.

Emboss - Pressing an image into paper so that it will create a raised relief.

Flexography - Letterpress printing using a form of relief printing; formally called aniline printing. Synthetic or rubber relief plates, special inks, presses procedures.

Flat-bed cutting - A press on which plates are positioned along a flat metal bed against which the paper is pressed by the impression cylinder, as compared to a rotary press which prints from curved plates.
Folding - There are a large number of different folding options. Some common folds are:

Concertina or Z fold.

Gate fold – where left and right edges fold to the centre.

Roll fold – like a takeaway menu.
Folio - Folio may refer to:

Folio (printing), a book size.

A particular edition of a book printed on folio pages, such as the First Folio of William Shakespeare's plays.

A leaf of a book: see Recto and verso.

Folio (typeface), a sans-serif typeface.

Folio (magazine).

Foolscap folio, a paper size.

Folio Society, publishers of fine illustrated books.

Folio Weekly, a newspaper published in Florida and Georgia.

"Folio", an imprint of French publisher Éditions Gallimard.

Folio Corporation, a software company and technology product.

Folio, Inc. (acquired by Sun Microsystems), developers of the F3 font format
Font - A complete set of type of one size and face.

Forme - Each side of a signature.
Fugitive ink - Fugitive ink works similarly to solvent sensitive ink in the fact that any form of alteration (with water or an aqueous solution) will make the ink run so that the printed pattern or area becomes smudged, therefore indicating that a forgery or alteration has taken place. These, again, will be found on cheques and if you are too wet your finger with saliva and wipe across the background, you would see the ink smudge.

Galley - In printing and publishing, proofs are the preliminary versions of publications meant for review by authors, editors, and proof-readers, often with extra wide margins. Galley proofs may be uncut and unbound, or in some cases electronic. They are created for proofreading and copyediting purposes, but may be used for promotional and review purposes also. 
Galley proofs are so named because in the days of hand-set type, the printer would set the page into galleys, the metal trays into which type was laid and tightened into place. These would be used to print a limited number of copies for editing mark-up. The printer would then receive the edits, re-arrange the type, and print the final copy.

Some publishers use paper galley proofs as advance reading copies, providing them to reviewers, magazines, and libraries in advance of final publication. These print-on-demand (POD) pre-publication publicity proofs are normally bound, but may be lacking illustrations (or have them in black and white only). Proofs in electronic form are rarely offered for advance reading.

Proofs issued in the proofreading and copy-editing review phase are called galleys or galley proofs; proofs created in a near-final version for editing and checking purposes are called page proofs. In the page-proof stage, mistakes are supposed to have been corrected; to correct a mistake at this stage is expensive, and authors are discouraged from making many changes to page proofs. Page layouts are examined closely in the page proof stage. Page proofs also have the final pagination, which facilitates compiling the index.

These days, as paper and digital forms share the final product that readers actually use, the term 'uncorrected proof' is more common as a term than galley proof, which refers exclusively to a paper proof version. Uncorrected proof describes the penultimate proof version (on paper or in digital form) yet to receive final author and publisher approval, the term appearing on the covers of ARCs.
GSM - The unit of measurement for paper weight (grams per square meter).

Gravure printing - Method of printing using metal cylinders etched with millions of tiny wells that hold ink.

Greyscale - Strip of grey values ranging from white to black. Used by process camera and scanner operators to calibrate exposure times for film and plates. Also called step wedge.

Grippers - A series of metal fingers that hold each sheet of paper as it passes through a printing press.
Guillotine - any of various machines or instruments that cut powerfully and quickly esp. one with a blade that drops vertically as for trimming metal paper etc.

H&J - Hyphenation & Justification.
Halftone - Reproduction of continuous tone artwork with the image formed dots of various sizes.
Hard copy - The output of a computer printer, or typed text sent for typesetting.
Hemp - is a term reserved mainly for low tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) varieties of the plant Cannabis sativa. Of the approximately 2000 cannabis plants varieties known, about 90% contain only low-grade THC and are most useful for their fibre, seeds and medicinal or psychoactive oils. Hemp is one of the earliest domesticated plants known.

In modern times hemp is used for industrial purposes including paper, textiles, clothing, biodegradable plastics, construction (as with Hemcrete and insulation), body products, health food and bio-fuel. Hemp is thus legally grown in many countries across the world including Spain, China, Japan, Korea, France, North Africa and Ireland. Although hemp is commonly associated with marijuana (hemp's THC-rich cousin), since 2007 the commercial success of hemp food products has grown considerably.

Imposition - Arrangement of pages on mechanicals or flats so they will appear in proper sequence after press sheets are folded and bound.
ISBN - International Standard Book Numbering System A number assigned to a published work and usually found either on the title page or the back of the title page. Considered an International Standard Book Number.

ISO - International Standards Organisation.
ISSN - An International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is a unique eight-digit number used to identify a print or electronic periodical publication.
Justify - the alignment of text along a margin or both margins. This is achieved by adjusting the spacing between the words and characters as necessary so that each line of text finishes at the same point.

Kerning - A method in composition of changing the spacing between type; brings the type closer together.

Leading - Space added between lines of type to space out text and provide visual separation of the lines. Measured in points or fractions thereof. Named after the strips of lead which used to be inserted between lines of metal type.

Lithography printing - Method of printing using plates whose image areas attract ink and whose nonimage areas repel ink. Nonimage areas may be coated with water to repel the oily ink or may have a surface, such as silicon, that repels ink.

Logo - A company, partnership or corporate creation (design) that denotes a unique entity. A possible combination of letters and art work to create a "sole" entity symbol of that specific unit.
Mechanical fastening - This Standard is as summary of nomenclature and terminology currently used to define and/or describe mechanical fasteners, related characteristics, and the manufacturing processes that produce these products. Utilization of these terms by manufacturers and consumers is intended to reduce or eliminate confusion and serve as a sound basis for communication. (a) Primary Operations. Mechanical fasteners are produced by forming or screw machine operations. Forming is generally scrap less and, depending upon size, may produce fasteners at rates exceeding 500 pieces per minute. Screw machining, although more tightly tolerance, is significantly slower and generates scrap because it involves the removal of material. (b) Secondary Operations. Fasteners generally undergo several secondary operations or processes such as thread rolling, heat treating, or plating. (c) Fastener. A fastener is a mechanical device designed specifically to hold, join, couple, assemble, or maintain equilibrium of single or multiple components. The resulting assembly may function dynamically or statically as a primary or secondary component of a mechanism or structure. Based on the intended application, a fastener is produced with varying degrees of built in precision and engineering capability, ensuring adequate, sound service under planned, pre-established environmental conditions. (d) Bolts, Studs, Screws, Nuts, Washers, Rivets, Pins, and Custom Formed Parts. These items are the general product families in which mechanical fasteners are best classified. Within each product family are numerous types that may have a name conforming to the technical language of a national standard or alternately may have a name that has its origins in commercial or marketing nomenclature often taken from its intended application. Such names, for example, include the "stove bolt" and "carriage bolt." Because mechanical fasteners are used in just about every mechanical assembly, they necessarily have been designed to meet a broad range of applications from watch and computer assembly to space shuttle design. The names given to fasteners appear to be as limitless as the designer's imagination. While many fasteners may look alike, they generally have defined engineered capabilities based upon their intended application.The joining of two or more materials through the use of fasteners such as nails, bolts, or screws.

Mock-up - A reproduction of the original printed matter and possibly containing instructions or direction.

Moire pattern - Undesirable pattern resulting when halftones and screen tints are made with improperly aligned screens, or when a pattern in a photo, such as a plaid, interfaces with a halftone dot pattern.

OCR - Optical character recognition, usually abbreviated to OCR, is the mechanical or electronic conversion of scanned images of handwritten, typewritten or printed text into machine-encoded text. It is widely used as a form of data entry from some sort of original paper data source, whether documents, sales receipts, mail, or any number of printed records. It is a common method of digitizing printed texts so that they can be electronically searched, stored more compactly, displayed on-line, and used in machine processes such as machine translation, text-to-speech and text mining. OCR is a field of research in pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and computer vision.

Early versions needed to be programmed with images of each character, and worked on one font at a time. "Intelligent" systems with a high degree of recognition accuracy for most fonts are now common. Some systems are capable of reproducing formatted output that closely approximates the original scanned page including images, columns and other non-textual components.

Offset - See set-off. In printing, the process of using an intermediate blanket cylinder to transfer an image from the image carrier to the substrate. Short for offset lithography. A type of printing press or printing method. The printing press uses paper in sheets of a standard size (offset paper). Economical only for short printing runs.

Orphan - In typesetting, widows and orphans are words or short lines at the beginning or end of a paragraph, which are left dangling at the top or bottom of a column, separated from the rest of the paragraph. There is some disagreement about the definitions of widow and orphan; what one source calls a widow the other calls an orphan.

Outline fonts - a typeface in which the characters are formed with only the outline defined rather than from solid strokes.

Over-printing - printing over an area already printed. Used to emphasise changes or alterations.
Pad printing - Pad printing is a printing process that can transfer a 2-D image onto a 3-D object. This is accomplished using an indirect offset (gravure) printing process that involves an image being transferred from the cliché via a silicone pad onto a substrate. Pad printing is used for printing on otherwise impossible products in many industries including medical, automotive, promotional, apparel, and electronic objects, as well as appliances, sports equipment and toys. It can also be used to deposit functional materials such as conductive inks, adhesives, dyes and lubricants.

Physical changes within the ink film both on the cliché and on the pad allow it to leave the etched image area in favour of adhering to the pad, and to subsequently release from the pad in favour of adhering to the substrate.

The unique properties of the silicone pad enable it to pick the image up from a flat plane and transfer it to a variety of surfaces, such as flat, cylindrical, spherical, compound angles, textures, concave, or convex surfaces.

Pantone colour - a registered name for an ink colour matching system. 
Perfecting Press - A sheet fed printing press that prints both sides of a sheet in one pass (full colour front and one colour back).

Perfect binding - a common method of binding paperback books. After the printed sections having been collated, the spines will be ground off and the cover glued on.
Picking - the effect of ink being too tacky and lifting fibres out of the paper. Shows up as small white dots on areas of solid colour.

Plate - The printing press uses 4 ink colours to get all the colours on a postcard. The image for each colour is put on a thin metal plate the size of the postcard sheet. The plate manages where and how much of a certain colour ink goes on the paper. The backs of the postcard typically use just the black plate since most are printed only in black.

Plate setter - A plate setter is a machine which receives a raster image from a raster image processor and in turn, creates a lithographic plate suitable for use on an offset press.
Ream - 500 sheets of paper.

Register marks - Cross-hair lines on mechanicals and film that help keep flats, plates, and printing in register. Also called cross marks and position marks.
Relief printing - Printing method whose image carriers are surfaces with two levels having inked areas higher than noninked areas. Relief printing includes block printing, flexography and letter press.

Resolution - Sharpness of an image on film, paper, computer screen, disc, tape or other medium.

RGB colour - The colour space of Red, Green and Blue. These are the primary colours of light, which computers use to display images on your screen. An RGB computer file must be translated into the CMYK (the primary colours of pigment) colour space in order to be printed on a printing press.
Rotary cutting - Rotary die cutting is die cutting using a cylindrical die on a rotary press. A long sheet or web of material will be fed through the press in to an area known as a "station" which holds a rotary tool that will cut out shapes, make perforations or creases, or even cut the sheet or web into smaller parts. A series of gears will force the die to rotate at the same speed as the rest of the press, ensuring that any cuts the die makes line up with the printing on the material. The machines used for this process can incorporate multiple "stations" that die cut a particular shape in the material. In each of these stations lie one or more of these geared tools or printing cylinders, and some machines use automatic eye registration to make sure the cuts and / or printing are lined up with one and other when higher tolerances are required.

Dies used in rotary die cutting are either solid engraved dies, adjustable dies, or magnetic plate tooling. Engraved dies have a much higher tolerance and are machined out of a solid steel bar normally made out of tool steel. Adjustable dies have removable blades that can be easily replaced with other blades, either due to wear or to cut a different material, while magnetic plate tooling has a cylinder that has magnets placed in it, and an engraved metal plate is attached or wrapped around the base cylinder holding onto it by the force of the magnets.

Sanserif - In typography, a sans-serif, sans serif, san serif or simply sans typeface is one that does not have the small projecting features called "serifs" at the end of strokes. The term comes from the French word sans, meaning "without". Sans-serif fonts tend to have less line width variation than serif fonts.

In print, sans-serif fonts are used for headlines rather than for body text. The conventional wisdom holds that serifs help guide the eye along the lines in large blocks of text. Sans-serifs, however, have acquired considerable acceptance for body text in Europe.

Sans-serif fonts have become the de facto standard for body text on-screen, especially online. This is partly because interlaced displays may show twittering on the fine details of the horizontal serifs. Additionally, the low resolution of digital displays in general can make fine details like serifs disappear or appear too large.

Before the term “sans-serif” became standard in English typography, a number of other terms had been used. One of these outmoded terms for sans serif was gothic, which is still used in East Asian typography and sometimes seen in font names like Century Gothic or Trade Gothic.
Sans-serif fonts are sometimes, especially in older documents, used as a device for emphasis, due to their typically blacker type colour.

Scoring - To crease paper with a metal rule for the purpose of making folding easier.

Screen ruling - A measurement equalling the number of lines or dots per inch on a halftone screen.

Screen printing - Method of printing by using a squeegee to force ink through an assembly of mesh fabric and a stencil. 
Short grain paper - Refers to the fibres in paper lining up perpendicular to the longest measurement of the paper. For example, the paper fibres, or grain, in a short grain 11” a 17” sheet of paper are perpendicular to the 17” dimension. Paper that is torn perpendicular to the grain is difficult to tear evenly and does not tear cleanly. Paper folded perpendicular to the grain, produces a ragged fold and toner on digitally printed applications may flake off in the folded area, although because of improvements in technology, this problem is not as common as it once was. Many types of digital printers experience feeding problems when short grain paper is used. Short grain paper is also known as grain short paper.

Signature (print term) - 1) several folios collected together for sewing as part of the bookbinding process make up a signature. Multiple signatures usually make up a book. A single signature is much like a booklet but it takes several together to create the longer publication. The signature is formed from a printed sheet of paper that has been folded (in half, quarters, eighths, etc.) and cut, if necessary, to create a set of pages in proper order for reading.

2) A signature also refers to a letter or other character printed on the first page of a section of a book (each sheet that becomes a signature when folded) and used as a guide for collating and binding the book.

3) The contact information of an ad or other document or the credit line (such as on the back of a custom greeting card) is sometimes referred to as the signature, contact block, or credits. It generally consists of one or more of:


  • Logo
  • Advertiser/Business Name
  • Address
  • Phone Number
  • Map or Driving Directions
  • Web Site Address
Outside of desktop publishing, signature has other meanings including a name written in one's own handwriting. For the purposes of this site — unless talking about a signature on a design contract — a signature refers to book pages, reference characters, or contact information as described above.

Also Known As: section (book) | contact block (ad) | credits (ad, other documents).

Slug Area - The non-printable area of the document -- outside of the page. Where you put additional notes for the printer or file prepper.

Spot-varnishing - One ink or varnish applied to portions of a sheet, as compared to flood or painted sheet.

Stroke - The main diagonal portion of a letterform such as in N, M, or Y...

Step-and-repeat - A procedure for placing the same image on plates in multiple places.
Substrate - Any surface or material on which printing is done.
Tack - is a measurement of how sticky a substance (usually ink) is.

Template - Concerning a printing project's basic details in regard to its dimensions. A standard layout Thermal fastening - Letterpress printing in which a special ink, while still wet, is dusted with a resinous powder. Then the sheets are baked fusing the powder with the ink, giving it a raised effect.
Trapping - The ability to print a wet ink film over previously printed ink. Dry trapping is printing wet ink on dry paper or over dry ink. Wet trapping is printing wet ink over previously printed wet ink.

Trim marks - Similar to crop or register marks. These marks show where to trim the printed sheet.

Typography - the design and planning of printed matter using type.
Variable costs - Variable costs are expenses that change in proportion to the activity of a business.
Watermark - Translucent logo in paper created during manufacturing by slight embossing from a dandy roll while paper is still approximately 90 percent water.
Web (printer) - A type of printing press or printing method. The printing press uses papers that come supplied on a large roll (resembling a paper towel roll). Used for large runs of printing.
Widow - A single word or two left at the end of a paragraph, or a part of a sentence ending a paragraph, which loops over to the next page and stands alone. Also, the last sentence of a paragraph, which contains only one or two short words.
Work-and-tumble - Printing one side of a sheet and turning it over from the gripper to the tail to print the second side using the same side guide and plate for the second side.
Work-and-turn - A printing production format that has the front and back of a printed piece on one side of the paper that is then printed the same on the back side, producing two copies of the piece.

Wove - A smooth paper with a gentle patterned finish.

X-height - Distance between the baseline of a line of type and tops of the main body of lower case letters.

Bibliography:

Antarctica Sightseeing Flights – www.antarcticaflights.com.au
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
ARGUS Communications – Allen, Texas 75002

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I would believe that screen printing was used to print on the dream catcher fabric



Dreamcatchers are a Native American traditional decoration, often hung by the entrance to a sleeping area. They were used to catch bad dreams and allow pleasant dreams to filter into the beds. Writing activities involving dreamcatchers include brainstorming exercises, creating outlines and writing full paragraphs about different aspects of this Native American piece of art.





Screen printing is a printing technique that uses a woven mesh to support an ink-blocking stencil. The attached stencil forms open areas of mesh that transfer ink or other printable materials which can be pressed through the mesh as a sharp-edged image onto substrate. A fill blade or squeegee is moved across the screen stencil, forcing or pumping ink into the mesh openings for transfer by capillary action during the squeegee stroke.

Screen printing is also a stencil method of print making in which a design is imposed on a screen of polyester or other fine mesh, with blank areas coated with an impermeable substance. Ink is forced into the mesh openings by the fill blade or squeegee and onto the printing surface during the squeegee stroke. It is also known as silkscreen, serigraphy, and serigraph printing. A number of screens can be used to produce a multi-coloured image.

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